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女學學誌—目次摘要第29期


篇名 照顧公共化的改革與挑戰:以保母托育體系的改革為例
作者 傅立葉、王兆慶(陽明大學衛生福利研究所、財團法人彭婉如文教基金會企劃研究組)
摘要

  「照顧公共化」是讓現代公民(特別是女性)兼顧工作與家庭照顧,促進性別平等的策略,也是改變老人、兒童照顧商品化問題的藥方。但在實踐上,如何於長期維持家庭照顧傳統、家庭範疇以外照顧高度市場化的台灣,創造社會變遷,進而形成國家承擔照顧責任的體系?

  台灣03歲的幼兒由母親和家庭親屬照顧,僅1成由保母照顧;保母長期處於非正式經濟地位,習於與家長私下協商托育關係,國家過去也未曾積極介入。直至2008年內政部兒童局通過的「保母托育管理與托育費用補助實施計畫」,始明確揭示積極性福利原則,建構普及的嬰幼兒保母托育服務,以分擔家庭或女性自行育兒的責任,為試圖將幼兒照顧公共化的改革政策。本文的主要目的在探討此一改革政策的基本理念、政策制訂的過程、政策執行的狀況,以及此一保母托育制度公共化行動未來可能面對的挑戰。

        本文的分析顯示,上述計畫的誕生代表國家女性主義運動的成果,亦即在缺乏社會民主共識的條件下,公共化的保母托育理念,透過行政部門體制內的民間婦運代表的倡議與協力規劃,落實成為國家的政策。此一政策的真正意涵,不應被簡化為津貼補助,或是片面的保母輔導制度,而是打造保母托育制度公共治理的基礎建設,以為未來進一步推動照顧公共化的進程鋪路。然而,本研究也發現,該計畫發展過程中引發的種種爭議,以及執行上遭遇來自市場的反挫,反映了保母托育公共化的路途並不平順,未來的挑戰仍然艱鉅。


 
關鍵字 照顧、公共化、保母、托育、社區保母系統、婦女運動、女性主義

Title Reform and Challenge of Care System in Taiwan:A Case of the Community Childminder Service
Author Li-Yeh Fu、Chao-Ching Wang(Institute of Health and Welfare Policy、Peng Wan-Ru Foundation)
Abstract

Developing a public care system is crucial in helping citizens balance their family care and job responsibilities, as well as to avoid commodification of care for children and the elderly. However, in Taiwan approximately 90% of children aged 0–3 were cared for by their mothers and other family members. Only 10% of these children received childminder services, which were provided mainly in the informal market based on private negotiations between parents and nannies without any intervention by the state. In 2008 the Ministry of Interior implemented the Program of Management and Subsidy for Childminder Services, and the state began placing childminder services under public governance to pursue an active social welfare policy based on the idea of universal social services. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the development and implementation of this innovative policy, as well as the challenges for reform.

This study determined that, without a social basis of social democracy, the reform policy was a result of the efforts made by state feminists, who not only advocated for the notion of a public childcare system, but also cooperated with state bureaucrats to design and plan the entire program. This program should not be considered merely as a cash subsidy or a management measure for childminer services; it is a vital infrastructure with the ideal of developing a public childcare system in Taiwan. Nevertheless, this study also revealed that this reform did not proceed smoothly. The controversy that arose during the planning process and the backlash after the implementation of the program showed that this reform had faced severe challenges.


 
Keywords Childcare; public governance; childminder service; community service; state feminism; women’s movement.

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